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Felix, K. and Manna, S.K. and Wise, K. and Barr, J. and Ramesh, G.T. (2005) Low levels of arsenite activates nuclear factor-kappaB and activator protein-1 in immortalized mesencephalic cells. Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology, 19 (2). pp. 67-77. ISSN 1095-6670

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Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons is one of the major features of Parkinson's disease. Many redox-active metals such as iron and manganese have been implicated in neuronal degeneration characterized by symptoms resembling Parkinson's disease. Even though, arsenic, which is another redox-active metal, has been shown to affect the central monoaminergic systems, but its potential in causing dopaminergic cell degeneration has not been fully known. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate arsenic signaling especially that is mediated by reactive oxygen species and its effect on early transcription factors in dopamine producing mesencephalic cell line 1RB3AN27. These mesencephalic cells were treated with low concentrations of sodium arsenite (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 microM) and incubated for different periods of time (0-4 h). Arsenite was cytotoxic at 5 and 10 microM concentrations only after 72-h incubation period. Arsenite, in a dose-dependent manner, induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of early transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) as shown by electro mobility shift assay. Incubation of antioxidants, either N-acetyl-L-cysteine (50 microM) or alpha-tocopherol (50 microM) with 1 microM arsenite, suppressed ROS generation. Arsenite at 1 microM concentration was sufficient for maximal activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation. Time kinetics studies showed maximal activation of NF-kappaB by 1 microM concentration of arsenite was seen at 120 min and correlated with complete degradation of Ikappa Balpha at 60 min. Similarly, maximal activation of AP-1 by 1 microM concentration of arsenite occurred at 120 min. N-acetyl-L-cysteine at 50 microM concentration inhibited arsenite-induced NF-kappa B and AP-1. In addition, arsenite was shown to induce phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 at concentrations of 1 microM and above. These results suggest that arsenite, at low and subcytoxic concentrations, appears to induce oxidative stress leading to activation of early transcription factors whereas addition of antioxidant inhibited the activation of these factors.

Item Type: Article
Depositing User: Dr P Divakar
Date Deposited: 08 Jul 2015 10:07
Last Modified: 08 Jul 2015 10:07
URI: http://cdfd.sciencecentral.in/id/eprint/238

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